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However, this was still faster than the teleprinters used on contemporary machines of that era. Although the machine was fairly simple, it was nevertheless a masterpiece of design, using far fewer parts than anything in its class, and quickly earning Wozniak a reputation as a master designer.

Encouraged by the success of the Apple I, Jobs started looking for investments to further expand the business, [36] but banks were reluctant to lend him money; the idea of a computer for ordinary people seemed absurd at the time.

In February , Markkula recruited Michael Scott from National Semiconductor to serve as the first president and CEO of Apple Computer, as Jobs and Wozniak were both insufficiently experienced and he was not interested in taking that position himself.

Almost as soon as Apple had started selling its first computers, Wozniak moved on from the Apple I and began designing a greatly improved computer: the Apple II.

In the May issue of Byte , Wozniak said of the Apple II design, "To me, a personal computer should be small, reliable, convenient to use, and inexpensive.

Now not only useful for simple text display, the Apple II included graphics and, eventually, color. During the development of the Apple II, Jobs pressed for a well-designed plastic case and built-in keyboard, with the idea that the machine should be fully packaged and ready to run out of the box.

Jobs wanted the Apple II case to be "simple and elegant", and hired an industrial designer named Jerry Manock to produce such a case design.

In , the Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first " killer application " of the business world: VisiCalc , a spreadsheet. The Apple II series went on to sell about six million units in total before it was discontinued in While the Apple II was already established as a successful business-ready platform because of Visicalc, Apple management was not content.

The Apple III was designed to take on the business environment in an attempt to compete with IBM in the business and corporate computing market. The Apple III was a relatively conservative design for computers of the era.

However, Jobs did not want the computer to have a fan; rather, he wanted the heat generated by the electronics to be dissipated through the chassis of the machine, forgoing the cooling fan.

However, the physical design of the case was not sufficient to cool the components inside it. By removing the fan from the design, the Apple III was prone to overheating.

This caused the integrated circuit chips to disconnect from the motherboard. Customers who contacted Apple customer service were told to "raise the computers six inches in the air, and then let go", which would cause the ICs to fall back into place.

Thousands of Apple III computers were recalled. A new model was introduced in to try to rectify the problems, but the damage was already done.

In the July issue of Kilobaud Microcomputing , publisher Wayne Green stated that "the best consumer ads I've seen have been those by Apple.

They are attention-getting, and they must be prompting sale. Apple Computer, the fast growing Californian manufacturer of small computers for the consumer, business and educational markets, is planning to go public later this year.

Founded about five years ago as a small workshop business, it has become the second largest manufacturer of small computers, after the Radio Shack division of the Tandy company.

In January , Apple held its first shareholders meeting as a public company in the Flint Center , a large auditorium at nearby De Anza College which is often used for symphony concerts to handle the larger numbers of shareholders post-IPO.

The business of the meeting had been planned so that the voting could be staged in 15 minutes or less. In most cases, voting proxies are collected by mail and counted days or months before a meeting.

In this case, after the IPO, many shares were in new hands. Steve Jobs started his prepared speech, but after being interrupted by voting several times, he dropped his prepared speech and delivered a long, emotionally charged talk about betrayal, lack of respect, and related topics.

While IBM began with one microcomputer, little available hardware or software, and a couple of hundred dealers, Apple had five times as many dealers in the US and an established international distribution network.

The Apple II had an installed base of more than , customers, and hundreds of independent developers offered software and peripherals; at least ten databases and ten word processors were available, while the PC had no databases and one word processor.

The company's customers gained a reputation for devotion and loyalty. BYTE in stated that [80]. There are two kinds of people in the world: people who say Apple isn't just a company, it's a cause; and people who say Apple isn't a cause, it's just a company.

Both groups are right. Nature has suspended the principle of noncontradiction where Apple is concerned. Apple is more than just a company because its founding has some of the qualities of myth Apple is two guys in a garage undertaking the mission of bringing computing power, once reserved for big corporations, to ordinary individuals with ordinary budgets.

The company's growth from two guys to a billion-dollar corporation exemplifies the American Dream. The magazine noted that the loyalty was not entirely positive for Apple; customers were willing to overlook real flaws in its products, even while comparing the company to a higher standard than for competitors.

It took them a full year to realize what had happened". The II still sold well, [78] but by the PC surpassed it as the best-selling personal computer.

Apple Computer's business division was focused on the Apple III, another iteration of the text-based computer. Simultaneously the Lisa group worked on a new machine that would feature a completely different interface and introduce the words mouse , icon , and desktop into the lexicon of the computing public.

The first iteration of Apple's WIMP interface was a floppy disk where files could be spatially moved around. After months of usability testing, Apple designed the Lisa interface of windows and icons.

Because of the high price, Lisa failed to penetrate the business market. By computer dealers saw Apple as the only clear alternative to IBM's influence; [92] some even promoted its products to reduce dependence on the PC.

And you'll see why won't be like On the same day, an emotional Jobs introduced the computer to a wildly enthusiastic audience at Apple's annual shareholders meeting held in the Flint Auditorium; [] [] Macintosh engineer Andy Hertzfeld described the scene as "pandemonium".

The Macintosh was too radical for some, who labeled it a mere "toy". Because the machine was entirely designed around the GUI, existing text-mode and command-driven applications had to be redesigned and the programming code rewritten; this was a challenging undertaking that many software developers shied away from, and resulted in an initial lack of software for the new system.

It was not successful. While , people participated, dealers disliked the promotion, the supply of computers was insufficient for demand, and many were returned in such a bad shape that they could no longer be sold.

The former favored open architecture computers like the Apple II, sold to education, small business, and home markets less vulnerable to IBM. This frustrated Wozniak, who left active employment at Apple early that same year to pursue other ventures, stating that the company had "been going in the wrong direction for the last five years" and sold most of his stock.

In April , Sculley decided to remove Jobs as the general manager of the Macintosh division, and gained unanimous support from the Apple board of directors.

Jobs, while taking the position of Chairman of the firm, had no influence over Apple's direction and subsequently resigned from Apple in September and took a number of capable Apple employees with him to found NeXT Inc.

NeXT Inc. While not a commercial success, due in part to its high price, the NeXT computer would introduce important concepts to the history of the personal computer including serving as the initial platform for Tim Berners-Lee as he was developing the World Wide Web.

Sculley reorganized the company, unifying sales and marketing in one division and product operations and development in another. This was due to its introduction of desktop publishing and later computer animation through Apple's partnership with Adobe Systems , which introduced the laser printer and Adobe PageMaker.

Indeed, the Macintosh would become known as the de-facto platform for many industries including cinema, music, advertising, publishing, and the arts.

Under leadership of John Sculley , Apple issued its first corporate stock dividend on May 11, A month later on June 16, Apple stock split for the first time in a split.

Apple kept a quarterly dividend with about 0. Apple continued to sell both lines of its computers, the Apple II and the Macintosh. And in Apple introduced the Apple IIgs , an Apple II positioned as something of a hybrid product with a mouse-driven, Mac-like operating environment.

Even with the release of the first Macintosh, Apple II computers remained the main source of income for Apple for years. At the same time, the Mac was becoming a product family of its own.

Meanwhile, Apple attempted its first portable Macs: the failed Macintosh Portable in and then the more popular PowerBook in , a landmark product that established the modern form and ergonomic layout of the laptop.

Popular products and increasing revenues made this a good time for Apple. MacAddict magazine has called to the "first golden age" of the Macintosh.

On February 19, , Apple registered the " Apple. However, these new lines were marketed poorly by what was now "arguably one of the worst-managed companies in the industry".

The excess of arbitrary model numbers confused many consumers and hurt Apple's reputation for simplicity. Compounding matters was the fact that, although the machines were cheaper than a comparable PC when taken into account all the components built-in that had to be added to the 'bare bones PC' , the poor marketing gave the impression that the machines were more expensive.

These processors used a RISC architecture, which differed substantially from the Motorola X0 series that were used by all previous Macs.

Parts of Apple's operating system software were rewritten so that most software written for older Macs could run in emulation on the PowerPC series.

In addition to computers, Apple has also produced consumer devices. In Apple launched eWorld , an online service providing email, news and a bulletin board system to replace AppleLink.

It was shut down in In a decision was made to officially start licensing the Mac OS and Macintosh ROMs to 3rd party manufacturers who started producing Macintosh "clones".

This was done in order to achieve deeper market penetration and extra revenue for the company. Jobs promptly found a loophole in the licensing contracts Apple had with the clone manufacturers and terminated the Macintosh OS licensing program, ending the Macintosh clone era.

Jobs stepped in as the interim CEO to begin a critical restructuring of the company's product line.

He would eventually become CEO and served in that position until August On August 24, , Steve Jobs resigned his position as chief executive officer of Apple before his long battle with pancreatic cancer took his life on October 5, On November 10, , Apple introduced the Apple Store , an online retail store based upon the WebObjects application server the company had acquired in its purchase of NeXT.

The new direct sales outlet was also tied to a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy. As part of the deal, Apple and Microsoft agreed to settle a long-standing dispute over whether Microsoft's Windows operating system infringed on any of Apple's patents.

Microsoft chairman Bill Gates appeared at the expo on-screen, further explaining Microsoft's plans for the software they were developing for Mac, and stating that he was very excited to be helping Apple return to success.

After this, Steve Jobs said this to the audience at the expo:. If we want to move forward and see Apple healthy and prospering again, we have to let go of a few things here.

We have to let go of this notion that for Apple to win, Microsoft has to lose. We have to embrace a notion that for Apple to win, Apple has to do a really good job.

And if others are going to help us that's great, because we need all the help we can get, and if we screw up and we don't do a good job, it's not somebody else's fault, it's our fault.

So I think that is a very important perspective. If we want Microsoft Office on the Mac, we better treat the company that puts it out with a little bit of gratitude; we'd like their software.

So, the era of setting this up as a competition between Apple and Microsoft is over as far as I'm concerned.

This is about getting Apple healthy, this is about Apple being able to make incredibly great contributions to the industry and to get healthy and prosper again.

Apple CFO Fred Anderson stated that Apple would use the additional funds to invest in its core markets of education and creative content.

While discontinuing Apple's licensing of its operating system to third-party computer manufacturers, one of Jobs's first moves as new acting CEO was to develop the iMac , which bought Apple time to restructure.

The line became a sales smash, moving about one million units each year. It also helped re-introduce Apple to the media and public and announced the company's new emphasis on the design and aesthetics of its products.

Also that year, Apple unveiled the iBook , its first consumer-oriented laptop that was also the first Macintosh to support the use of Wireless LAN via the optional AirPort card that was based on the To aid users in transitioning their applications from Mac OS 9 , the new operating system allowed the use of Mac OS 9 applications through the Classic environment.

In May , after much speculation, Apple announced the opening of a line of Apple retail stores, to be located throughout the major U.

The stores were designed for two primary purposes: to stem the tide of Apple's declining share of the computer market and to respond to poor marketing of Apple products at third-party retail outlets.

In October , Apple introduced its first iPod portable digital audio player. Then iPod started as a 5 gigabyte player capable of storing around songs.

Since then it has evolved into an array of products including the Mini now discontinued , the iPod Touch , the Shuffle now discontinued , the iPod Classic also discontinued , the Nano now discontinued , the iPhone and the iPad.

Since March , the largest storage capacity for an iPod has been gigabytes. The iPod gave an enormous lift to Apple's financial results.

The new iMac G4 design had a white hemispherical base and a flat panel all-digital display supported by a swiveling chrome neck.

After several iterations increasing the processing speed and screen sizes from 15" to 17" to 20" the iMac G4 was discontinued and replaced by the iMac G5 in the summer of In , Apple also released the Xserve 1U rack mounted server.

Originally featuring two G4 chips, the Xserve was unusual for Apple in two ways. It represented an earnest effort to enter the enterprise computer market and it was also relatively cheaper than similar machines released by its competitors.

Its all-metal anodized aluminum chassis finished Apple's transition away from colored plastics in their computers.

Apple claims this was the first bit computer sold to the general public. The Power Mac G5 was also used by Virginia Tech to build its prototype System X supercomputing cluster, which at the time garnered the prestigious recognition of the third-fastest supercomputer in the world.

Apple's Xserves were soon updated to use the G5 as well. They replaced the Power Mac G5 machines as the main building block of Virginia Tech 's System X , which was ranked in November as the world's seventh-fastest supercomputer.

A new iMac based on the G5 processor was unveiled August 31, and was made available in mid-September. This model dispensed with the base altogether, placing the CPU and the rest of the computing hardware behind the flat-panel screen, which is suspended from a streamlined aluminum foot.

This new iMac, dubbed the iMac G5 , was the "world's thinnest desktop computer", [] measuring in at around two inches around 5 centimeters. After creating a sizable financial base to work with, the company began experimenting with new parts from new suppliers.

As a result, Apple was able to produce new designs quickly over a short amount of time, with the release of the iPod Video, then the iPod Classic, and eventually the iPod touch and iPhone.

Apple's wildly successful PowerBook and iBook products relied on Apple's previous generation G4 architecture, which was produced by Freescale Semiconductor , a spin-off from Motorola.

This processor contains two cores in one rather than have two separate processors. Apple has also developed the Power Mac G5 Quad that uses two of the Dual-Core processors for enhanced workstation power and performance.

The new Power Mac G5 Dual cores run individually at 2. The Power Mac G5 Quad cores run individually at 2.

Ginza was followed by a store in Osaka , Japan in August Another store was opened in Sapporo in A store in the Bullring shopping centre in Birmingham opened in April , and the Bluewater shopping centre in Dartford , Kent opened in July Also, in an effort to court a broader market, Apple opened several "mini" stores in October in an attempt to capture markets where demand does not necessarily dictate a full-scale store.

These stores follow in the footsteps of the successful Apple products: iPod mini and Mac mini. These stores are only one half the square footage of the smallest "normal" store and thus can be placed in several smaller markets.

In , Apple introduced its iTools service, a set of free web-based tools that included an email account, internet greeting cards called iCards, a service called iReview that gave internet users a place to read and write reviews of Web sites, and a tool called KidSafe that promised to prevent children from browsing inappropriate portions of the web.

The latter two services were eventually canceled because of lack of success, while iCards and email became integrated into Apple's.

Mac subscription-based service introduced in and discontinued in mid to make way for the release of the new MobileMe service, coinciding with the iPhone 3G release.

Some controversy surrounded the release of MobileMe services to users resulting in expected downtime and a significantly longer release window.

As a result of this, Apple extended the subscriptions of existing MobileMe subscribers by an additional 30 days free-of-charge. This service kept most of the core services that MobileMe offered, however dropping iDisk, Gallery, and iWeb.

The iTunes Music Store was launched in April , with 2 million downloads in the first 16 days. Music was purchased through the iTunes application, which was initially Macintosh-only; in October , support for Windows was added.

Initially, the music store was only available in the United States due to licensing restrictions. A version for Canada opened in December The download was The Complete U2 , by U2.

Briefly, people in New Zealand were able to buy music off the Australian store. However, that loophole was quickly closed. On February 23, , the iTunes Music Store sold its 1 billionth song.

Since iTunes' inception, it has sold over 2 billion songs, 1. Since downloadable TV and movie content was added 50 million TV episodes and 1.

In early , Apple celebrated the 10 billionth song downloaded from the iTunes Music Store. In a keynote address on June 6, , Steve Jobs officially announced that Apple would begin producing Intel-based Macintosh computers beginning in Rumors of cross-platform compatibility had been spurred by the fact that Mac OS X is based on OpenStep , an operating system that was available for many platforms.

This introduction came with the news that Apple would complete the transition to Intel processors on all hardware by the end of , a year ahead of the originally quoted schedule.

On January 9, , Apple Computer, Inc. In his Macworld Expo keynote address, Steve Jobs explained that with their current product mix consisting of the iPod and Apple TV as well as their Macintosh brand, Apple really wasn't just a computer company anymore.

At the same address, Jobs revealed a product that would revolutionize an industry in which Apple had never previously competed: the Apple iPhone.

The iPhone combined Apple's first widescreen iPod with the world's first mobile device boasting visual voicemail, and an internet communicator able to run a fully-functional version of Apple's web browser, Safari , on the then-named iPhone OS later renamed iOS.

It was another 12 months before the iPhone 3G became available on July 11, This month iteration cycle has continued with the iPhone 4 model arriving in similar fashion in , a Verizon model was released in February , and a Sprint model in October , shortly after Jobs' death.

Now two iPod types are multi-touch: the iPod nano and the iPod touch, a big advance in technology. Apple has also gone wireless, selling a wireless trackpad, keyboard, mouse, and external hard drive.

Wired accessories are, however, still available. The Apple iPad was announced on January 27, , with retail availability commencing in April and systematically growing in markets throughout The iPad fits into Apple's iOS product line, being twice the screen size of an iPhone without the phone abilities.

While there were initial fears of product cannibalization the FY financial results released in Jan included commentary of a reverse 'halo' effect, where iPad sales were leading to increased sales of iMacs and MacBooks.

Since , Apple's revenues, profits, and stock price have grown significantly. On May 26, , Apple's stock market value overtook Microsoft's, [] [] [] and Apple's revenues surpassed those of Microsoft in the third quarter of The Guardian reported that one of the reasons for the change was because PC software, where Microsoft dominates, has become less important compared to the tablet and smartphone markets, where Apple has a strong presence.

On March 2, , Apple unveiled the iPad's second-generation model, the iPad 2. Like the 4th generation iPod Touch and iPhone, the iPad 2 comes with a front-facing camera as well as a rear-facing camera, along with three new apps that utilize these new features: Camera, FaceTime , and Photo Booth.

On October 29, , Apple announced structural changes to increase collaboration between hardware, software, and services. The most notable short term difference of this restructuring was the launch of iOS 7 , the first version of the operating system to use a drastically different design to its predecessors, headed by Jony Ive.

During this time, Apple released the iPhone 5 , the first iPhone to have a screen larger than 3. They released the iPad 3rd generation with Retina Display, followed by the iPad 4th generation just half a year later.

The iPad Mini was announced alongside the iPad 4th gen, and was the first to feature a smaller screen than 9. This was followed by the iPad Mini 2 with Retina Display in , alongside the iPad Air , a continuation of the original 9.

Apple also released various major Mac updates, including the MacBook Pro with Retina Display , [] whilst also discontinuing the original MacBook range for a short period, before reintroducing it in with various new features, a Retina Display and a new design that implemented USB-C , while removing all other ports.

On November 25, , Apple acquired a company called PrimeSense. On September 9, , Apple announced the Apple Watch , the first new product range since the departure of Steve Jobs.

The Apple Watch received mixed reviews, with critics suggesting that whilst the device showed promise, it lacked a clear purpose, similar to many of the devices already on the market.

On September 7, , Apple announced the iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus with an improved camera and a faster processor than the previous generation.

The iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus have high storage options. On March 21, , Apple announced the iPad Apple also released the new On September 12, , at the Steve Jobs Theater , Apple introduced the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus with better camera features, more improvements in product design , user experience , performance and more, and announced the iPhone X with facial recognition technology and wireless charging.

They also announced the Apple Watch Series 4, running watchOS 5 , with an all-new design and larger display as well as many more health-related features.

In , Bloomberg News reported that, as early as , a specialized unit of China's People's Liberation Army began inserting chips into Supermicro servers that allowed for backdoor access to them.

The iPhone 11 Pro is also the first iPhone to feature three cameras. As cash reserves increased significantly in , Apple created Braeburn Capital on April 6, to manage its assets.

The stock has split 2 for 1 three times on June 15, , June 21, and February 28, Apple initially paid dividends from June 15, to December 15, Piper Jaffray estimates future stock and revenue of Apple annually, and have been doing so for several years.

Complete Documentation since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For more general information about the company, see Apple Inc.

Aspect of history. Created by Rob Janoff in , the Apple logo with the rainbow scheme was used from April of that year [22] until August 26, Main article: Apple II series.

Apple II Plus , designed primarily by Wozniak. Disk II , also designed by Wozniak. Main article: Apple III.

Main article: Apple Lisa. Main articles: Macintosh and television commercial. See also: List of mergers and acquisitions by Apple.

See also: Timeline of Macintosh models. Main article: Mac OS X. The board of directors instructed Sculley to contain Jobs and his ability to launch expensive forays into untested products.

Rather than submit to Sculley's direction, Jobs attempted to oust him from his leadership role at Apple. The outlook on Macintosh improved with the introduction of the LaserWriter , the first reasonably priced PostScript laser printer , and PageMaker , an early desktop publishing application released in July After the departures of Jobs and Wozniak, the Macintosh product line underwent a steady change of focus to higher price points, the so-called "high-right policy" named for the position on a chart of price vs.

Newer models selling at higher price points offered higher profit margin , and appeared to have no effect on total sales as power users snapped up every increase in power.

This policy began to backfire in the last years of the decade as new desktop publishing programs appeared on PC clones that offered some or much of the same functionality of the Macintosh but at far lower price points.

The company lost its monopoly in this market and had already estranged many of its original consumer customer base who could no longer afford their high-priced products.

In , Apple introduced the PowerBook , replacing the "luggable" Macintosh Portable with a design that set the current shape for almost all modern laptops.

The same year, Apple introduced System 7 , a major upgrade to the operating system which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities.

It remained the architectural basis for the Classic Mac OS. The success of the PowerBook and other products brought increasing revenue.

The magazine MacAddict named the period between and as the "first golden age" of the Macintosh. Apple believed the Apple II series was too expensive to produce and took away sales from the low-end Macintosh.

The success of Apple's lower-cost consumer models, especially the LC, also led to the cannibalization of their higher-priced machines. To address this, management introduced several new brands, selling largely identical machines at different price points aimed at different markets.

These were the high-end Quadra , the mid-range Centris line, and the consumer-marketed Performa series. This led to significant market confusion, as customers did not understand the difference between models.

Apple also experimented with a number of other unsuccessful consumer targeted products during the s, including digital cameras , portable CD audio players , speakers , video consoles , the eWorld online service, and TV appliances.

Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division based on John Sculley's unrealistic market forecasts. Throughout this period, Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows by focusing on delivering software to cheap commodity personal computers, while Apple was delivering a richly engineered but expensive experience.

Microsoft Corp. At this time, a series of major product flops and missed deadlines sullied Apple's reputation, and Sculley was replaced as CEO by Michael Spindler.

The System 6 platform itself was outdated because it was not originally built for multitasking. System 6 and 7 would need to be replaced by a new platform or reworked to run on modern hardware.

Hired for his reputation as a corporate rehabilitator, Amelio made deep changes, including extensive layoffs and cost-cutting.

On July 9, , Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses.

Jobs acted as the interim CEO and began restructuring the company's product line; it was during this period that he identified the design talent of Jonathan Ive , and the pair worked collaboratively to rebuild Apple's status.

On August 15, , Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh K : the iMac.

The iMac design team was led by Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone. During this period, [ when? In , Apple purchased Macromedia 's Key Grip software project, signaling an expansion into the digital video editing market.

The sale was an outcome of Macromedia's decision to solely focus on web development software. The product, still unfinished at the time of the sale, was renamed " Final Cut Pro " when it was launched on the retail market in April Apple then employed the same technology to create iDVD for the consumer market.

The primary developers of the MP3 player and music library software moved to Apple as part of the acquisition, and simplified SoundJam's user interface, added the ability to burn CDs, and removed its recording feature and skin support.

In , Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake , [] as well as Emagic for the music productivity application Logic.

The purchase of Emagic made Apple the first computer manufacturer to own a music software company. The acquisition was followed by the development of Apple's consumer-level GarageBand application.

Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability, reliability, and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface.

On May 19, , Apple opened its first official eponymous retail stores in Virginia and California. The iTunes Store quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over five billion downloads by June 19, At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6, , Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel -based Mac computers in By August 7, , Apple made the transition to Intel chips for the entire Mac product line—over one year sooner than announced.

Apple's success during this period was evident in its stock price. Since , Apple's design team has progressively abandoned the use of translucent colored plastics first used in the iMac G3.

This design change began with the titanium -made PowerBook and was followed by the iBook 's white polycarbonate structure and the flat-panel iMac. In an article posted on Apple's website on February 6, , Jobs wrote that Apple would be willing to sell music on the iTunes Store without digital rights management DRM , thereby allowing tracks to be played on third-party players, if record labels would agree to drop the technology.

On December 16, , Apple announced that would be the last year the corporation would attend the Macworld Expo, after more than 20 years of attendance, and that senior vice president of Worldwide Product Marketing Phil Schiller would deliver the keynote address in lieu of the expected Jobs.

The official press release explained that Apple was "scaling back" on trade shows in general, including Macworld Tokyo and the Apple Expo in Paris , France, primarily because the enormous successes of the Apple Retail Stores and website had rendered trade shows a minor promotional channel.

On January 14, , Jobs announced in an internal memo that he would be taking a six-month medical leave of absence from Apple until the end of June and would spend the time focusing on his health.

In the email, Jobs stated that "the curiosity over my personal health continues to be a distraction not only for me and my family, but everyone else at Apple as well", and explained that the break would allow the company "to focus on delivering extraordinary products".

After years of speculation and multiple rumored "leaks", Apple unveiled a large screen, tablet-like media device known as the iPad on January 27, The iPad ran the same touch-based operating system as the iPhone, and all iPhone apps were compatible with the iPad.

This gave the iPad a large app catalog on launch, though having very little development time before the release. Later that year on April 3, , the iPad was launched in the US.

It sold more than , units on its first day, and , by the end of the first week. In June , Apple released the iPhone 4 , [] [] which introduced video calling , multitasking , and a new uninsulated stainless steel design that acted as the phone's antenna.

Later that year, Apple again refreshed its iPod line of MP3 players by introducing a multi-touch iPod Nano , an iPod Touch with FaceTime , and an iPod Shuffle that brought back the clickwheel buttons of earlier generations.

On January 17, , Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence for an indefinite period to allow him to focus on his health.

Chief Operating Officer Tim Cook assumed Jobs's day-to-day operations at Apple, although Jobs would still remain "involved in major strategic decisions".

Alongside peer entities such as Atari and Cisco Systems , Apple was featured in the documentary Something Ventured , which premiered in and explored the three-decade era that led to the establishment and dominance of Silicon Valley.

Apple did not have a chairman at the time [] and instead had two co-lead directors, Andrea Jung and Arthur D. Levinson , [] who continued with those titles until Levinson replaced Jobs as chairman of the board in November after Jobs' death.

On October 5, , Steve Jobs died, marking the end of an era for Apple. From to , Apple released the iPhone 4S [] [] and iPhone 5 , [] [] which featured improved cameras, an intelligent software assistant named Siri , and cloud-synced data with iCloud; the third and fourth generation iPads, which featured Retina displays ; [] [] [] and the iPad Mini , which featured a 7.

This beat the non-inflation-adjusted record for market capitalization set by Microsoft in A previously confidential email written by Jobs a year before his death was presented during the proceedings of the Apple Inc.

Samsung Electronics Co. Notably, Jobs declares a "Holy War with Google" for and schedules a "new campus" for In March , Apple filed a patent for an augmented reality AR system that can identify objects in a live video stream and present information corresponding to these objects through a computer-generated information layer overlaid on top of the real-world image.

It also experienced a significant year-over-year increase in Mac sales. This was contrasted with a significant drop in iPod sales. Iovine believed that Beats had always "belonged" with Apple, as the company modeled itself after Apple's "unmatched ability to marry culture and technology.

In January , it was announced that one billion Apple devices were in active use worldwide. On June 6, , Fortune released Fortune , their list of companies ranked on revenue generation.

In the trailing fiscal year , Apple appeared on the list as the top tech company. On April 6, , Apple launched Clips , an app that allows iPad and iPhone users to make and edit short videos with text, graphics, and effects.

The app provides a way to produce short videos to share with other users on the Messages app, Instagram , Facebook , and other social networks.

Apple also introduced Live Titles for Clips that allows users to add live animated captions and titles using their voice.

In May , Apple refreshed two of its website designs. Their public relations "Apple Press Info" website was changed to an "Apple Newsroom" site, featuring a greater emphasis on imagery and therefore lower information density, and combines press releases, news items, and photos.

Its "Apple Leadership" overview of company executives was also refreshed, adding a simpler layout with a prominent header image and two-column text fields.

In November , Apple announced it was branching out into original scripted programming: a drama series starring Jennifer Aniston and Reese Witherspoon , and a reboot of the anthology series Amazing Stories with Steven Spielberg.

There are five series in development at Apple. On January 29, , Apple reported its first decline in revenues and profits in a decade.

On March 30, Apple acquired local weather app maker Dark Sky, for an undisclosed sum, with the intent to discontinue its original app at the end of On August 4, it was reported by Axios that Apple had "serious interest" in buying TikTok , [] [] although this was later denied by Apple.

During its annual WWDC keynote speech on June 22, , Apple announced it will transition the Mac away from Intel processors to processors developed in-house.

On October 23, , Apple introduced the iPod digital music player. Several updated models have since been introduced, and the iPod brand is now the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin.

It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather. The iPhone features a 3. The flat silver back and large antenna square of the original model were eliminated in favor of a glossy, curved black or white back.

Software capabilities were improved with the release of the App Store , which provided iPhone-compatible applications to download.

On April 24, , the App Store [] surpassed one billion downloads. It provided an incremental update to the device, including faster internal components, support for faster 3G speeds, video recording capability, and voice control.

Shortly after its release, reception issues were discovered by consumers, due to the stainless steel band around the edge of the device, which also serves as the phone's cellular signal and Wi-Fi antenna.

The issue was corrected by a "Bumper Case" distributed by Apple for free to all owners for a few months. In June , Apple overtook Nokia to become the world's biggest smartphone maker by volume.

On September 12, , Apple introduced the iPhone 5. A patent filed in July revealed the development of a new iPhone battery system that uses location data in combination with data on the user's habits to moderate the handsets' power settings accordingly.

Apple is working towards a power management system that will provide features such as the ability of the iPhone to estimate the length of time a user will be away from a power source to modify energy usage and a detection function that adjusts the charging rate to best suit the type of power source that is being used.

In a March interview, Apple designer Jonathan Ive used the iPhone as an example of Apple's ethos of creating high-quality, life-changing products.

He explained that the phones are comparatively expensive due to the intensive effort that is used to make them:.

We don't take so long and make the way we make for fiscal reasons Quite the reverse. The body is made from a single piece of machined aluminum The whole thing is polished first to a mirror finish and then is very finely textured, except for the Apple logo.

The chamfers [smoothed-off edges] are cut with diamond-tipped cutters. The cutters don't usually last very long, so we had to figure out a way of mass-manufacturing long-lasting ones.

The camera cover is sapphire crystal. Look at the details around the SIM-card slot. It's extraordinary!

On September 9, , Apple introduced the iPhone 6 , alongside the iPhone 6 Plus that both have screen sizes over 4-inches.

In July , Apple announced that one billion iPhones had been sold. On September 7, , Apple introduced the iPhone 7 and the iPhone 7 Plus , which feature improved system and graphics performance, add water resistance, a new rear dual-camera system on the 7 Plus model, and, controversially, remove the 3.

On September 12, , Apple introduced the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus , standing as evolutionary updates to its previous phones with a faster processor, improved display technology, upgraded camera systems and wireless charging.

The iPhone XR comes in an all-screen glass and aluminium design with the most advanced LCD in a smartphone featuring a 6. Overall, the iPhone 11 retains the same glass and aluminum design as the iPhone XR while adding in new features such as the addition of an Ultra-Wide 12mp camera, a battery that lasts 1 hour longer than the iPhone XR and an IP68 rating for water and dust resistance.

The iPhone 11 Pro and iPhone 11 Pro Max feature an all-new textured matte glass and stainless steel design and a triple camera setup that included an Ultra Wide, Wide and Telephoto camera.

It replicates the iPhone 8 design - has a 4. On January 27, , Apple introduced their much-anticipated media tablet , the iPad.

Content is downloadable via Wi-Fi and optional 3G service or synced through the user's computer. On March 2, , Apple introduced the iPad 2 with a faster processor and a camera on the front and back.

The third-generation iPad was released on March 7, , and marketed as " the new iPad ". The dimensions and form factor remained relatively unchanged, with the new iPad being a fraction thicker and heavier than the previous version and featuring minor positioning changes.

On October 23, , Apple's fourth-generation iPad came out, marketed as the " iPad with Retina display ". It added the upgraded A6X processor and replaced the traditional pin dock connector with the all-digital Lightning connector.

It featured a reduced 7. The iPad Air 2 was unveiled on October 16, It added better graphics and central processing and a camera burst mode as well as minor updates.

The iPad Mini 3 was unveiled at the same time. Since its launch, iPad users have downloaded over three billion apps.

The original Apple Watch smartwatch was announced by Tim Cook on September 9, , being introduced as a product with health and fitness-tracking.

The second generation of Apple Watch, Apple Watch Series 2 , was released in September , featuring greater water resistance, a faster processor, and brighter display.

It was also released alongside a cheaper Series 1. On September 12, , Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 3 featuring LTE cellular connectivity, giving the wearable independence from an iPhone [] except for the setup process.

On September 12, , Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 4 , featuring new display, electrocardiogram , and fall detection.

On September 10, , Apple introduced the Apple Watch Series 5, featuring a new magnetometer, a faster processor, and a new always-on display. The Series 4 was discontinued.

At the Macworld conference, Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV Jobs accidentally referred to the device as "iTV", its codename, while on stage , a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with high-definition televisions.

It has HDMI out as the only video output source. Features include access to the iTunes Store to rent movies and TV shows purchasing has been discontinued , streaming from internet video sources, including YouTube and Netflix , and media streaming from an iTunes library.

A third generation of the device was introduced at an Apple event on March 7, , with new features such as higher resolution p and a new user interface.

The release also coincided with the opening of a separate Apple TV App Store and a new Siri Remote with a glass touchpad , gyroscope , and microphone.

The 4K model also has support for high dynamic range. Apple's first smart speaker, the HomePod was released on February 9, , after being delayed from its initial December release.

It features seven tweeters in the base, a four-inch woofer in the top, and six microphones for voice control and acoustic optimization [] [] [] On September 12, , Apple announced that HomePod is adding new features—search by lyrics, set multiple timers, make and receive phone calls, Find My iPhone, Siri Shortcuts—and Siri languages.

For iOS and macOS, Apple also develops its own software titles, including Pages for writing, Numbers for spreadsheets, and Keynote for presentations, as part of its iWork productivity suite.

Apple's range of server software includes the operating system macOS Server ; [] Apple Remote Desktop , a remote systems management application; [] and Xsan , a storage area network file system.

Apple also offers online services with iCloud , which provides cloud storage and synchronization for a wide range of user data, including documents, photos, music, device backups, and application data, [] and Apple Music , its music and video streaming service.

According to the Sydney Morning Herald , Apple wants to start producing an electric car with autonomous driving as soon as According to Steve Jobs, the company's name was inspired by his visit to an apple farm while on a fruitarian diet.

Jobs thought the name "Apple" was "fun, spirited and not intimidating". It was almost immediately replaced by Rob Janoff 's "rainbow Apple", the now-familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it.

Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the "bitten" logo, and Jobs immediately took a liking to it.

However, Jobs insisted that the logo be colorized to humanize the company. On August 27, [] the year following the introduction of the iMac G3 , Apple officially dropped the rainbow scheme and began to use monochromatic logos nearly identical in shape to the previous rainbow incarnation.

An Aqua -themed version of the monochrome logo was used from to , and a glass-themed version was used from to This resulted in a series of lawsuits and tension between the two companies.

These issues ended with the settling of their lawsuit in Apple's first slogan, " Byte into an Apple", was coined in the late s.

From the introduction of the Macintosh in , with the Super Bowl advertisement to the more modern Get a Mac adverts, Apple has been recognized for its efforts towards effective advertising and marketing for its products.

However, claims made by later campaigns were criticized , [] particularly the Power Mac ads. Apple owns a YouTube channel where they release advertisements, tips, and introductions for their devices.

Semiotics is the study of how meaning is derived from symbols and signs and provides major insight for understanding brand management and brand loyalty.

Ferdinand de Saussure , a Swiss linguist and semiotician , created a semiotic model that identifies two parts of a sign: the signified and signifier.

The signifier is the perceptual component that we physically see, and the signified is then the concept which the sign refers to.

Charles Sanders Pierce was a logician. However, the Peircean model added that whoever is decoding the sign must have some previous understanding or knowledge about the transmitted message.

There is plenty of evidence to show that a company can easily fail if they do not keep track of how the brand changes with the media culture.

The first two Apple logos are drastically different from each other. However, they both share the sign of an apple.

In the original logo designed by Ronald Wayne , Sir Isaac Newton is seen sitting under the infamous apple tree about to bear fruit above, just before his discovery of gravity.

Analysis of the semiotics with Saussure's model yields the signified, or sign, of the apple. The signifier represents discovery, innovation, and the notion of thought.

It was quickly realized that the original logo was too complicated and intellectual for the needed purpose. A fun and clever logo that spoke to computer-savvy people was needed.

In , Rob Janoff created the iconic rainbow apple symbol that is still recognized today. The logo has double meaning and differs from the many serious corporate logos in existence at the time.

Because Apple is seen as a challenger in the industry, the most common signifier is the forbidden fruit from the Biblical reference, the Garden of Eden.

The semiotics of the bite and the color of the logo can also be looked at from a technological viewpoint.

The bite is the signified and the computer storage unit, byte , is the signifier. The rainbow color of the logo portrays the message that the its computer monitor could be produce color images.

The only thing to change with the logo since has been the color. In , a monochromatic logo was implemented with the release of the first iMac. This is the first Mac to not have the iconic rainbow-colored apple since its creation 20 years prior.

The logo's shape had become untouchable and Apple's message is that it is better to be different. Apple customers gained a reputation for devotion and loyalty early in the company's history.

In , BYTE stated that: []. There are two kinds of people in the world: people who say Apple isn't just a company, it's a cause; and people who say Apple isn't a cause, it's just a company.

Both groups are right. Nature has suspended the principle of noncontradiction where Apple is concerned. Apple is more than just a company because its founding has some of the qualities of myth Apple is two guys in a garage undertaking the mission of bringing computing power, once reserved for big corporations, to ordinary individuals with ordinary budgets.

The company's growth from two guys to a billion-dollar corporation exemplifies the American Dream. Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company at one time, but this was after the phenomenon had already been firmly established.

Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism "something that was stumbled upon," [] while Ive explained in that "People have an incredibly personal relationship" with Apple's products.

Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in , and in the world from to

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